Takht-e-Jamshid has other names including Perspolis, Perseolis, Hezar Sotoun and Chehel Menar. Taken from ancient Persian language, Parse is the modern name of Takht-e-Jamshid. Greeks used to call it as Persepolis which means Parse city. Takht-e-Jamshid means Shah Jamshid palace, who was the mythical Shah of Iran.
In the year 518 BC, Persepolis was the new capital of the Achaemenid in Parse. Takht-e-Jamshid has got place in northern part of Marvdasht, north of Fars province. Since 1979, this place has been registered as one of the monuments of Iran on the UNESCO World Heritage. Emil Ernst Herzfeld did the first scientific excavations at Persepolis in 1931.
Persepolis is built entirely out of stone in an area of about 135,000 square meters. Among the rocks of any mortar is used, but in some places, the rocks are connected with iron clamps to each other called swallowtail (ChelChele) and pairs of leaden snap. Persepolis is not only one of the capitals of the Achaemenid period and ceremonial, administrative, the economycenters of that era, but has become a model for art for the next nations.
Founder of Persepolis
Darius the Great was the founder of Persepolis and his son Xerxes and his grandson Artaxerxes I then extend it. The building has been intact for about 200 years.
Architecture in Persepolis
The Capital height to their width and the height of the columns on the distance between two pillars are golden ratio. The golden ratio is an important ratio in geometry that exists in nature. This represents an ancient Iranian ability in art of architecture. Also, the columns have spoon shaped decoration that was done by Greek architects. The Capitals are in the form of various animals such as eagles, horned cattle and their meanings which have different symbols along with.
Persepolis includes seven House (Hall), reliefs, stairs, columns, and two stone tombs. Totally, there are more than three thousand incredibly harmonic reliefs in buildings and tombs in Persepolis.
Some of the palaces in Persepolis are Apadana, Tachar, Hadish and Malake.
The palace is one of the oldest palaces of Persepolis. Built in the order of Darius the Great, this place was used for Nowruz celebrations and reception of representatives delegated countries on the presence of the Shah. The palace is composed of 72 columns, which currently holds 14 columns.
Tachar or Tachra means winter house. This palace was built in the order of Darius the Great and was the economy palace. It is written on an inscription: I, the Great Darius, built this Tachar.
Hadish means a high place. This building was Khashayarsha personal palace. Hadish was Khashayarsha’s second wife name. The palace was small and the yellow color of the stones is a sign water running out of the rocks because of the heat.
The palace was built by Khashayarsha and a part of this palace was excavated and rebuilt by Ernst Emil Herzfeld in 1931. The palace is located at a lower altitude than the other buildings. Today is used as a museum and office facility of Persepolis.
Tombs of Persepolis
At the top of Persepolis, there are two shrines at the foot of Mount Rahmat; Tomb of Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III.
Takht-e-Jamshid was Achaemenid Shahs location for 200 years. In 330 BC, Alexander the Macedonian burnt it. Ancient Iranians used to call him Gojaste, Palid and Div Khou that all of them mean devil and bad. Some historians consider the cause of the incident unintentional. But others believe that Alexander the Macedonian did not destroy Persepolis and he has never been there.