Iran a seven thousand year old name, the word ‘Iran’ was known as ‘Airya’ in ancient Iran and ‘erān’ in Old Persian language and is derived from ancient ‘Airya nama’ or the land of noble people.Many centuries before the birth of Islam the country was called ‘Iran’ or ‘IranShahr’. Of course from 6th century B.C. until 1935 the country was known as ‘Persia’ by the world. In that year Reza-Shah Pahlavi formally requested the League of Nations or the newly established United Nations to use the word ‘Iran’ instead of ‘Persia’ on the international level. However since many European scholars and travelers had known the country as ‘Persia, this term is mentioned in western classic books, but ‘Iran’ is used by politicians.
The Persian king Cyrus the Great overthrew the Mades and became ruler of the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire, which reached from the Indus to the Nile. By the mid-800s Persian had become an international scientific and cultural center. Iran’s art is over 6000 years old. The primary residents of Iran did pottery in the west in 9th millennium B.C. in fact pottery art grew and evolved in Iran and majority of human discoveries belonging to the millennium before Christ owes to Iran Ancient territory. Discovery of metal works, invention of wind mills, tomb formed architecture, weaving industry, and pottery wheel. Statues, carved patterns, building decorations, miniature, drawing and majority of other signs of human existence and evolution belong to Iran. The variety of minority races such as Kurd, Lor, Azeri, Turcoman, and nomadic tribes that all know themselves as Iranians, have bound them all together from various races and nations. The Iranian scientists have had such a position in the history of science that they are quiet well known all around the world. Moreover, the existence of all the four natural seasons, beautiful coasts, high rise jungles and splendid springs have placed Iran amongst the unique countries in the world.
The Geographical situation of Iran
Iran is located southwest of the Asian Continent and covers 1.648.000 sq km (636.296 mi). From north the country borders with Caucasus and Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Sea) and Central Asia. From east it borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan, from south with Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman and from west ot as bounded by Iraq and Turkey. The present Iran is part of a bigger mountainous plateau which incorporated several seas, lakes and plains including the Caspian Sea at north, the Jeyhoon and Seyhoon plains, the steppes at northeast, the Koora (Koorosh) Plain at northwest, the Punjab Valley at southeast, Sea of Oman and Persian Gulf at south and Mesopotamia region between Tigris and Euphrates at west. In fact the former bigger Iranian plateau covered an area of 2,600,000 sq. km out of which only 1,648,000 sq. km belongs to present Iran. Iran is a giant parallelogram fallen between Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman at south and Caspian Sea at north and has served as bridge and corridor between Central Asia and Western Asia. Its bigger diameter stretches from Ararat Mountain at north to Guatr Port at south at a distance of 2,210 kilometers and its smaller diameter stretches from Sarakhs River at north to Arvandrud River at south at a distance of 1,400 kilometers. Half of Iran is mountainous. One fourth of the country is fertile and one fourth is barren and salty.
Iran’s capital city, Tehran, is located in the northwestern part of the country.